Merrick Bobb, an independent observer of the approval executive order in Seattle and executive director of the Police Evaluation Resource Center, a law enforcement reform advisory organization, said the agreements weren`t perfect, but they had always made progress. In November 2018, “Sessions closely adapted to the extinction these court-approved agreements between the Ministry of Justice and local law enforcement,” yet focused on reducing police misconduct, including the steady flow of brutality against blacks. “Approval decrees are not perfect because there is no perfect mechanism for the kind of change needed,” Gupta said. “But they are the best.” Three decades later, video of another act of police abuse, the murder of George Floyd, 46, by Minneapolis police on Memorial Day last week, shocked the nation with one of the most widespread rounds of protests shaking the nation in years. According to a Justice Department document, the Minneapolis Police Department was not subject to an order of approval, and that is unlikely to change with Trump in the White House. Some researchers have indicated that approval decrees are generally effective in ensuring that there are necessary reforms, although others raise doubts about the lasting effect of these reforms after the decrees are closed. To date, no study has sought to verify the impact of consent regulations or other forms of federal intervention on the number of police officers. One reason for this is that there is very little certainty about the exact number of people killed each year by police in the United States. The per capita mortality rate certainly exceeds that of other developed countries, but official sources are unreliable and almost certainly underestimate the number of deaths by about half. In new research, I use data from Fatal Encounters, an independently created dataset based on information gathered through requests for public recordings, media coverage, and crowdsourcing efforts. While there are a multitude of other crowdsourcing data sets of people killed by police, these tend to document deaths after 2014. Fatal Encounters is unique in its goal of recording all deaths dating back to the year 2000. At the time, Pittsburgh police were accused of targeting blacks for arrest and abuse.
A shaken moment came in 1995, when Jonny Gammage, a black businessman, died of asphyxiation during a fight with white police officers in the suburbs. The Justice Department intervened by giving Pittsburgh the opportunity to avoid federal action if it agreed to certain reforms. . . .