The terms for negotiating IBAs may also be set out in comprehensive land claims agreements. These agreements, commonly referred to as modern treaties, generally grant signatory Aboriginal communities land rights, resources and, since 1996, self-government. Some comprehensive land claim agreements, particularly in the north, require IBAs, particularly when development activities are conducted on settlement lands. As shown in Table 1, IBAs can be signed under these agreements with proponents of resource development activities or with the federal government for the establishment of nature reserves and parks.16 At the federal level, current legislation in Nunavut, the offshore region and part of the Northern Territories requires oil and gas advocates to develop performance plans that Improve employment and business opportunities for Northerners. 17 It is important to note that the financial benefits that the proponent or owner provides to First Nations must be detailed, practical and actionable. Note: NRCan`s map shows the location of Aboriginal communities and provides specific information on the types of agreements signed between municipalities and mining companies. Economies that focus on exporting natural resources rather than production (a neo-rated economy) tend to have special characteristics. These include being vulnerable to the boom-bust dynamics of commodity prices, controlled by large corporations outside the region, and not developing a diversified economy. However, governments and institutions can intervene to capture a greater proportion of resource pensions on the ground.
The authors suggest that Canada`s resource economy has shifted from a staple food to a neo-basic economy, with provincial and federal governments having less influence over large international corporations and Indigenous groups having more influence over the direction of resource development. In fact, IBAs are a mechanism that allows local indigenous communities to capture a greater proportion of resource rents resulting from resource exploitation. IBAs are private agreements in which indigenous governments exchange access to resources for employment opportunities for their members, financial transfers, business opportunities, and environmental protection. As a result, Indigenous communities often rely on IBAs to take control of the industry in their own communities. The purpose of this research is to analyze a case study on employment during the construction and operation phase of the nickel mine and voisey`s Bay concentrator in Labrador to better understand employment in a neo-solar economy. Vale is a company that owns the nickel mine, the Nunatsiavut government is the Inuit government in Labrador and the United Steel Workers (USW) is the union that represents the mine workers. The authors hope to understand how employment governance has changed in a neo-stable environment and what this means for workers in Labrador`s resource north. In its simplest form, collaborative planning has the potential to enable communities to shape the procedures, processes and programs that influence development in their region. This research found that the communities that benefited most from IBA processes were those that worked collaboratively with other potentially affected communities. In addition, it was found that municipalities with existing negotiating capacities that have obtained some form of authority over their traditional lands have benefited greatly from the IBA negotiations. Observers to IBA processes noted that cooperation increases both the capacity of a community and the ability to secure land rights through pooling of resources and shared regional authority.
With this in mind, it is important to note that IBAs are only intended to serve as a tool in a broader collaborative planning framework and, as such, have inherent limitations or limitations to what they can influence. IBAs differ considerably in scope and complexity, depending on the scope and nature of the project and the issues identified by the negotiating parties involved. However, most agreements deal with issues such as: When considering a project that encompasses the traditional territory of First Nations, the negotiation of an IBA can describe the parameters of the project, the commitment and responsibilities of both parties, and the participation of First Nations in the benefits of the operation […].